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Regulators need to determine whether miner extractable value is illegal, BIS report says

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Regulators need to determine whether miner extractable value is illegal, BIS report says Monica Noronha · 29 mins ago · 2 min read

A BIS research paper suggests that the process of miners making profits by choosing the sequencing of transactions in a block should be considered illegal.

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Updated: June 17, 2022 at 4:38 pm

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A new research paper published by the Bank for International Settlements has equated miner extractable value (MEV) to illegal activities in traditional markets like front-running and sandwich trades.

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MEV refers to profits that miners can earn by choosing which transactions to include in a block and in which order. The report deems MEV to be:

“[P]rofits that are made by manipulating market prices via a specific ordering — or even censoring — of pending transactions.”

In the traditional financial market, transactions are sequenced in the order that they are received, the report said. However, in the case of blockchains, miners determine which transactions to add to a block, and these miners are free to pick and choose from all the pending transactions in the memory pool or mempool.

Therefore, instead of choosing transactions based on transaction fees, where the transactions with the highest fees are added first, miners can select transactions based on the “profit opportunities they generate.”

For instance, a miner can introduce their own transaction before a large pending transaction that could impact prices, thereby earning a profit, the report explains. In other words, if miners see a large pending transaction that could affect the price of the asset, they could choose to add their own transaction. This will enable the miner to earn a profit because they have prior information about how prices will be affected, thanks to the pending transaction in the mempool.

The report stated:

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“Not only does this profit come at the expense of other market participants, but the miner’s transactions also delay other legitimate transactions. It thus forms an “invisible tax” on regular market participants.”

Similarly, miners can also engage in “back-running,” the report claimed. This means that a miner can place a buy or sell order immediately after a large transaction or market-moving event, it explained.

Additionally, miners can also engage in sandwich trades. In such trades, miners can place orders both before and after a market-moving transaction. This enables the miners to earn “profits without having to take on any longer-term position in the underlying assets,” the report stated.

The report estimates that MEV has amounted to around $550-$650 million since 2020 on the Ethereum blockchain alone. However, since these estimates are based on the largest protocols, the actual figure is likely to be higher, the report added.

In fact, at times, one out of 30 transactions are added to with the motive of earning MEV, the report states. This share was even higher in early June 2022  “due to a number of particularly large MEV transactions during the recent market stress,” it added.

Need for regulation

According to the report, regulators around the globe need to determine whether the value extracted by miners should be classified as illegal. While most jurisdictions consider such transactions in the traditional financial world to be unlawful, the legal status of MEV in most jurisdictions is ambiguous at present.

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The report added:

“These considerations on illegality aside, MEV also poses a quintessential problem for the industry itself, as it stands at odds with the idea of decentralisation.”

Going forward, MEV is likely to increase, the report said. This means that miners who engage in MEV will make more profits and could eventually crowd out other miners who do not. The report states that:

“MEV forms an existential risk to the integrity of the Ethereum ledger.”

Brave Group Inc

Japanese Virtual IP Firm Raises $10 Million To Accelerate Metaverse Business

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Japanese Virtual IP Firm Raises $10 Million To Accelerate Metaverse Business

Brave Group Inc., a Japanese virtual IP firm, recently said it had raised $10 million in new capital and that the company expects to use part of these funds to boost its “solution services for clients in the metaverse marketing business.” Taking part in Brave Group’s latest funding round were two local companies, foreign investment funds, as well as individual investors.

Metaverse Market Growth

A Japan-based virtual IP business, Brave Group Inc., recently said it had raised $10 million in new funding, thus bringing the total raised so far to $18 million. The company is set to use the new capital to strengthen its existing business operations and to “expand its solution services for clients in the metaverse marketing business.”

In a recent statement, Brave Group revealed that Japanese companies like Dawn Capital and Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. had participated in the round that also featured “foreign investment funds and individual investors.” In remarks following the announcement of the capital raise, Kazuhiro Ishikura, a general partner at Dawn Capital, said:

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As the boundary between real and virtual life disappears, the form of entertainment will also change, and new IP content KOLs are expected to be born. As the metaverse market grows globally, we believe that the Brave group’s content will be at the center of the enthusiastic virtual communities that will emerge. We hope that the strength of the anime and manga culture that Japan has cultivated over the years will be brought to the world virtually.

Yuichi Sakamoto, senior general manager with Osaka Gas’ innovation department, is quoted stating his company is ready to help Brave Group Inc. “realize lifestyles and businesses that respond to the New Normal.”

For his part, the CEO of Brave Group Inc., Keito Noguchi, said through the $10 million fundraise, his company would now “maximize the impact of Brave group’s IP not only in Japan but also in the world.”

What are your thoughts on this story? Let us know what you think in the comments section below.

Terence Zimwara

Terence Zimwara is a Zimbabwe award-winning journalist, author and writer. He has written extensively about the economic troubles of some African countries as well as how digital currencies can provide Africans with an escape route.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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Saddle.Finance

Saddle․Finance Creates New Standards For DeFi Trading

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Saddle․Finance Creates New Standards For DeFi Trading

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DeFi is a sub-sector in the crypto industry that has witnessed significant innovation since its inception. However, the narrative has struggled to stay consistent, affecting the domain overall. The current bear market has wiped out more than half of DeFi Total Value Locked (TVL), hampering innovations. Furthermore, several projects have simply forked (copied) existing protocols and brought zero ideas to the market.

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Amidst all of this, one project is making strides with the best innovations DeFiers have seen in a long time. Saddle Finance is the protocol that enables efficient DeFi trading for stablecoins and pegged-value crypto assets like wETH and wBTC. It redefines DeFi trading by offering cheap, efficient, swift, and low-slippage swaps for traders and high-yield pools for Liquidity Providers. The protocol has facilitated over $2B in transaction volume to date.

Enabling an Efficient and Secure DeFi Trading Experience

Saddle Finance is an AMM-based decentralized exchange (DEX) running on multiple blockchains, including Ethereum, Fantom, Arbitrum, Optimism, and Evmos. It is designed specifically for trading stablecoins and pegged crypto assets.

The platform is ideal for HODLers and newbies because of its easy-to-use interface. Its strongest point, however, is that it ensures minimum slippage while swapping assets. This is accomplished through innovative liquidity pools that use the StableSwap mathematical formula to maintain market liquidity.

The protocol is also known for its top-notch security. It has been audited by some of the best auditing firms in the sector, including Certik, Quantstamp, and OpenZeppelin. Moreover, the platform is backed by several renowned venture capital firms like Polychain Capital, Electric Capital, Dragonfly Capital, Framework, Coinbase Ventures, Nascent, and BoostVC.

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The project’s most intriguing aspect is its open collaboration. Saddle’s code is completely open-source, inviting Web3 developers to join the mission and build on top of the protocol. Moreover, its recent SEMPI project has enabled developers to get compensated for developing and forking the protocol.

$SDL: The Utility Rich Token Powering Saddle Ecosystem

$SDL is the native utility token of Saddle Finance. Its use cases revolve around staking, yield farming, and governance. The platform recently announced the completion of $SDL’s first vesting stage. Thus, users who provided funds to its liquidity pools can now trade and transact $SDL tokens.

They can also stake $SDL on saddle.exchange to earn rewards and receive the $veSDL tokens. $veSDL is the vote escrowed (ve) token that will serve as the platform’s governance token. Stakers will be able to vote with $veSDL and manage the $SDL supply in associated liquidity pools. Beyond that, users can provide liquidity to the SDL/WETH pair on SushiSwap

In the future, Saddle also plans to create more initiatives to take the protocol to the next level. These include migrating to on-chain governance, adding liquidity to $SDL through Tokemak, and introducing a new gauge to unlock extra staking yield boosts. The protocol will also issue bonds through Olympus Pro to generate more protocol-owned value.

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Similarly, launching a borrowing function against liquidity providers and adding leveraged yield farming through Rari Capital’s Fuse is also part of the plan. Lastly, Saddle intends to improve its virtual swaps and launch new services where users can deploy their own customizable pools.

Building the Future of DeFi

Although the current bear market has hit DeFi hard, the sector’s long-term potential is enormous. Innovations are critical in keeping this space alive. Saddle Finance is thus heavily focused on creating innovative solutions in DeFi. Its stableswap model, along with robust tokenomics, is an excellent example of genuinely innovative solutions.

The $SDL token and its utilities across various protocols clearly indicate token-level innovation. It is now tradable on the platform. Join the emerging revolution by staking $SDL on saddle.exchange—contribute to DeFi’s future while earning passive income.


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Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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China

Chinese State-Run Media Warns About Bitcoin’s Price Falling To Zero As Regulators Issue Fresh Crypto Warning

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Chinese State-Run Media Warns About Bitcoin’s Price Falling To Zero As Regulators Issue Fresh Crypto Warning

A Chinese state-run newspaper has published an article warning about bitcoin’s price falling to zero amid the crypto market sell-off. Meanwhile, financial regulators in Shenzhen have issued a new warning about cryptocurrency.

State-Run Newspaper Warns About Bitcoin Becoming Worthless

China’s state-run newspaper Economic Daily published an article warning about bitcoin Wednesday, according to SCMP. The nationwide newspaper is directly under the control of the Central Committee of the ruling Chinese Communist Party.

The article warned that investors should beware of the risk of bitcoin prices “heading to zero” amid the recent crypto market sell-off.

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“Bitcoin is nothing more than a string of digital codes, and its returns mainly come from buying low and selling high,” the newspaper details, adding:

In the future, once investors’ confidence collapses or when sovereign countries declare bitcoin illegal, it will return to its original value, which is utterly worthless.

The newspaper details that the lack of regulation in Western countries, such as the United States, helped create a highly-leveraged market that is “full of manipulation and pseudo-technology concepts.” The article describes it as an “important external factor” contributing to bitcoin’s volatility.

The warning from the state-run media reflects Beijing’s firm stance against cryptocurrency and related activities that the government has outlawed.

New Warning About Crypto by Chinese Regulators

On Tuesday, the Financial Regulatory Bureau of Shenzhen, the Shenzhen Central Sub-branch of the People’s Bank of China, and the Shenzhen Development and Reform Commission also jointly issued a warning that investors should be vigilant of illegal financial activities relating to crypto and how to avoid being scammed.

The notice states that virtual currency trading and speculation “seriously endanger” the safety of people’s property and breed gambling, illegal fundraising, fraud, pyramid schemes, money laundering, and other illegal and criminal activities. It also claims that they disrupt the country’s economic and financial order.

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The financial authorities cited a statement published in September last year by China’s central bank, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC), and 10 ministries and commissions declaring that virtual currency is not legal tender and related activities are illegal financial activities.

What do you think about the state-run newspaper publishing a warning about bitcoin’s price sinking to zero and the Chinese regulators warning about illegal crypto activities? Let us know in the comments section below.

Kevin Helms

A student of Austrian Economics, Kevin found Bitcoin in 2011 and has been an evangelist ever since. His interests lie in Bitcoin security, open-source systems, network effects and the intersection between economics and cryptography.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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